Cdc42 promotes the formation of filopodia and induces cell migration and metastasis [ 90 ]. Phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1 activates ROCK1 by opposing the inhibition of RhoE and then promotes cell motility [ 92 ].
ROCK1 plays a key role in the formation of stress fibers, and this isoform is mainly responsible for rigidity-dependent invadopodia activity through actomyosin contractility [ 96 , 97 ]. ROCK2 is important for phagocytosis, cell contraction and stabilizing the cytoskeleton [ 78 , 97 , 98 ]. Cdc42 activates the formin protein mDia2 to regulate actin nucleation and elongation of microfilaments [ , ]. The straight parallel alignment of microfilaments form filopodia [ 99 ]. RhoA and RacC play important roles during the formation of invadopodia.
RhoA activates mDia2 and further induces the formation of linear actin bundles to result in the elongation of invadopodia [ ]. In addition to regulating the formation of invadopodia, Cdc42 plays an important role in the trafficking of MMPs to the invadopodia. Eventually, MMPs promote extracellular matrix remodeling to enable invasive growth [ 94 ] Fig.
Zhang et al. Wang et al. Vinculin is another motility-associated protein that is synthesized in migrating cells, and vinculin-deficient cells extend unstable lamellipodia and filopodia. Understanding these relationships may provide insights into human lncRNA regulation, cytoskeletal structure, cell migration, and cancer metastasis. We present various lncRNAs in Fig. MEG3 downregulates Rac1 expression and is linked to primary thyroid cancer with lymph node metastasis.
From a physics viewpoint, the development of a tumor is a biological process driven by mechanics, which is regulated by the biochemical signaling pathways of tumor cells. For example, changes in cellular mechanical properties can activate signal transduction pathways. External factors stimulate the transition of normal cells to tumor cells.
The activity of the intracellular Rho signal increases, the arrangement of cytoskeleton fibers changes, and then cell morphology is affected. Some questions need to be addressed.
For example, do lncRNAs regulate other signaling pathways that are associated with the cytoskeleton? How can the cytoskeleton be targeted via lncRNAs for clinical cancer treatment? With the development of lncRNA research and technologies for measuring cell movements, the relationship between lncRNAs and cell migration and invasion in tumor metastasis can be uncovered.
DACT2 silencing by promoter CpG methylation disrupts its regulation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cytoskeleton reorganization in breast cancer cells. Leduc C, Etienne-Manneville S. Regulation of microtubule-associated motors drives intermediate filament network polarization. J Cell Biol. The hippo pathway: regulators and regulations. Genes Dev. Cell Oncol Dordr. PLoS One. Overexpression long non-coding RNA LINC is associated with poor prognosis and promotes invasion and metastasis in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Amplification of PVT-1 is involved in poor prognosis via apoptosis inhibition in colorectal cancers.
Br J Cancer. Long noncoding RNA PVT1 indicates a poor prognosis of gastric cancer and promotes cell proliferation through epigenetically regulating p15 and p Mol Cancer. Tumour Biol. Cytoskeletal organization in microtentacles. Exp Cell Res. Actin machinery and mechanosensitivity in invadopodia, podosomes and focal adhesions. J Cell Sci. Cell Death Dis. The selective cytotoxicity of DSF-cu attributes to the biomechanical properties and cytoskeleton rearrangements in the normal and cancerous nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. Regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics by actin-monomer-binding proteins. Trends Cell Biol. Capping protein regulates actin dynamics during cytokinetic midbody maturation. Scinderin promotes the invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells and predicts the outcome of patients.
Cancer Lett. Molinie N, Gautreau A. Physiol Rev. Efficiency of lamellipodia protrusion is determined by the extent of cytosolic actin assembly. Mol Biol Cell. Bugyi B, Carlier MF. Control of actin filament treadmilling in cell motility. Annu Rev Biophys. Andrianantoandro E, Pollard TD.
Mol Cell. Genome Biol. Strong fascin expression promotes metastasis independent of its F-actin bundling activity. Autocellular coupling by gap junctions in cultured astrocytes: a new view on cellular autoregulation during process formation.
LncRNAs regulate the cytoskeleton and related Rho/ROCK signaling in cancer metastasis
G-1 inhibits breast cancer cell growth via targeting colchicine-binding site of tubulin to interfere with microtubule assembly. Mol Cancer Ther. Function of the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase in carcinogenesis and associated therapeutic opportunities. The dynamic and motile properties of intermediate filaments.
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. Lateral association and elongation of vimentin intermediate filament proteins: a time-resolved light-scattering study. Mechanism of intermediate filament recognition by plakin repeat domains revealed by envoplakin targeting of vimentin. Nat Commun. Vimentin fibers orient traction stress. Vimentin coordinates fibroblast proliferation and keratinocyte differentiation in wound healing via TGF-beta-slug signaling.
Visualizing epithelial-mesenchymal transition using the Chromobody technology. Cancer Res. The apical scaffold big bang binds to spectrins and regulates the growth of Drosophila melanogaster wing discs.
Product | Cell Adhesion and Cytoskeletal Molecules in Metastasis
Actin cortex architecture regulates cell surface tension. Nat Cell Biol. Random versus directionally persistent cell migration.