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Information Retrieval Interaction
References Publications referenced by this paper. Recent trends in hierarchic document clustering: a critical review. Information technology—Which applications? Peter Ingwersen.
Theory and Application of Information Research. Last Interview Between Lee and Jackson.
Jackson Introducing Himself to Lee. Jackson Apologizing for a Heavy Defeat. Jackson Reporting a Great Victory. Jackson Asking Lee for a Match. The entire citation exhibits a representation of representations of representations of.. It may convey a message supposedly containing at least one meaning, e. This condition fulfilled, people not knowing this particular painting may know other historical paintings of similar nature, i.
Here, they will apply a representation by association, guided by the conventions applied in the language Mark Twain has used. The contents of the painting, which the reader actually may never have seen, is represented by at least the nine labels suggested by Twain. With imagination a few others could easily be added. These labels constitute nine interpretations, some even contradictory, of what he thinks the painter might wish to communicate.
Each of the nine meanings plus the description of the painting may first of all provide information to Twain himself, and now to us. For example, that there might be a matchbox in the hand of Lee, that Jackson is a smoker, that he looks exhausted and lost, or that a battle has occured which may not be in the painting at all.
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They are themselves messages with a certain meaning carrying information attached to them. One might go on like this.
However, one should also notice that the painting itself, hanging on the museum wall, in principle also is a representation of one or all the labels plus the description generated by Twain. Such iconic representations are often used on the front covers of museum catalogs because they are thought to project the content or other dimensions of the collection. Iconic representations are used in the Bookhouse by Mark Pejtersen because of their multidimensional and informative power.
An important aspect of the Mark Twain Painting Case is its capability of demonstrating that information goes beyond meaning. Retrieving meanings is not sufficient, or indeed perhaps not necessary in information retrieval. IR is preoccupied with providing information which may act as a supplement to human conscious or unconscious mental conditions in a given situation.
The machine performes data processing. Or information processing, metaphorically speaking. Thus, the cognitivistic view mirrors very simplistic human mental activities. If ever reached, a cognitive stage requires self-generation, i. Therefore, there should be some generally agreed-upon concept of information appropriate to that problem.
Prerequisites for such a concept for information science are that it is relevant to the five core areas of study, must be related to knowledge, is definable, and operational, that is, generalizable, i. The latter implies that we are able to compare information, whether it is generated or received.
[PDF] Information Retrieval Interaction - Semantic Scholar
Hence, we are not looking for a definition of information but an understanding and use of such a concept which may serve information science and does not contradict other information-related disciplines. The major study areas and the problem statement show that communication processes play a fundamental role, involving sender, message, channel, and recipient. The special case for information science lies in the notion of desired information and that the messages mainly, but not always, have the form of text, somehow organized in a system.
A relevant information concept should consequently be associated with all components in the communication process.
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Often, however, understanding of information is associated with one or two, but not all of the components, thereby reducing their relevance to information science. Salton , for example, identifies information with text contents, represented by the words or index terms. Although a user may be allowed to provide relevance feedback, stating whether a document or text is relevant or not, this fact does not indicate any notion of effect on the user, only on the system. Neither does it provide any social communicative context. The measure is concerned with the probability of the reception of messages through a channel, explicitely not with the semantic aspects of messages.
Notwithstanding, S. Artandi and M.
Artandi assumes the measure to form the basis for two other understandings of information, each related to different components in the communication process. One approach adheres to semiotics, i. Although the three approaches to information are all concerned with communication, they seem only applicable to information science by viewing its research areas isolated from each other, using different understandings of information for each purpose. For instance, while it is clear that reduction of uncertainty is a relevant concept in the study of recipients users and their reasons to desire information, it becomes unclear how this understanding of information may be related to generation processes.
With Salton, Shannon and Artandi the focus for a concept of information has moved from the areas of generated messages contents of texts , over the message itself not its meaning , to its meaning e. Also G. Wersig devotes attention to a concept associated with the reduction of uncertainty or doubt and the effect of a message on a recipient. In a very careful and profound examination of the communication process he categorizes various information concepts and develops his own Wersig, Instead Wersig narrows his concept of information to associate with a reduction of uncertainty which for information science implies reduction of uncertainty by means of the communication processes.
Uncertainty or doubt is the end product of a problem situation, in which knowledge and experience may not be sufficient in order to solve the doubt. Slightly later, but relatively unnoticed by Belkin, Wersig extends his information concept and his communication model to include the meaning of the communicated message in order to explain the effect on the recipient, reducing uncertainty Wersig, This problem of exclusivity can only be dealt with by extending the concept to include the entire communication process.
To the author, the transformation in problem space into a state of uncertainty is fundamental and eventually takes place when a person cannot solve a problematic situation or fulfil a goal by himself by thinking. In his critical essay on the semantics of information, published as an epilogue to his book referred to earlier, Machlup follows similar lines of principle as does Belkin concerning the importance of the sender in the communication processes. He states Machlup, , p. Information without an informant — without a person who tells something — is information in an only metaphoric sense He points to C.
Cherry also considered the question of how to distinguish between communication proper, by the use of spoken language or similar empirical signs, e.
It is in the latter sense that Machlup recommends the notion of information as a metaphor. Obviously meaningful to the recipient and supposedly meaningful to the informant. Machlup does not seem influenced by either Belkin, Wersig or Brookes, although the latter is referred to, but on different issues. Belkin makes a similar distinction between levels of communication to that of Machlup.
His model of the communication system of information science derives from Belkin, , p. He argues that this information concept satisfies all the prerequisites outlined above by linking it to the idea of structure within an analysis of the communication system that is of interest to information science. However, it is somewhat unsatisfying that the concept in its verbal description emphasizes the generation and then relies on the context of the communication model. The effect is neither expressed in the model nor in the concept statement.
This argument relies, quite rightly, on the notion of structure related to all components participating in the communication process. However, is it possible to have an idea of a state of knowledge and representative means? Wersig doubts it. In such experimental cases the resulting effects on the recipients considerations, actions taken, etc.