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Andrew's Baptist Church. Banneker lived his whole life in the tiny, black community of Oella, Maryland. His feats were remarkable for any time and any person: he taught himself mathematics and astronomy, surveyed in the Federal Territory now known as Washington, D. Banneker also exchanged letters with then-Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson concerning the equality of men and the "injustice of the slave state. Sukeek was brought to the United States in the early s.

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Archeologists working with some of her descendants - who continue to live in southern Maryland - uncovered evidence for the compelling story of her life. Visit Sukeek's Cabin to learn about her and her family's stories.

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Explore the park to learn more about African Americans who used to live on the property. Learn about the presence of African Americans at Maryland's second state capital by following a walking tour across the city. Visit the Carroll House, where the Carroll family owned more than 1, enslaved Africans and African Americans over the duration of their ownership of the property. Find out about over a century of African American history at the Maynard-Burgess House, which was continually owned by two interrelated black families from about The house and its residents bore witness to changes in African American lives that ran from slavery, to the Civil Rights movement, to the present day.

Also visit the James Brice House, where archeologists uncovered caches of mysterious objects believed to be indicative of folk beliefs, called Hoodoo. For nearly three centuries Northampton was a tobacco plantation that also produced other crops. Detailed information about the life of one woman, Elizabeth Hawkins, was obtained from descendants who live in the area and are active participants in the research and excavations relating to this site.

Northampton is located at the Northlake residential development in a community park. Interpretive signage guides visitors on a tour of this unique place. In , the remains of more than Africans living in New York City during the 17th and 18th centuries were discovered during construction of the Foley Square Project federal building.

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Archeologists recovered human remains and cultural information from the graves, sparking intense scrutiny and debate in the process. Visitors can today see a number of memorials. An interpretive center is underway. In the early s, the landscape of what is now Central Park West was largely wasteland and open fields. Several prominent African American clergymen and entrepreneurs bought land in the s to build homes and establish a community.

Over time, this area on the urban frontier became a culturally-diverse place of freedmen, Irish, and other groups. Today, above-ground archeology and testing in Central Park enables us to know something about Seneca Village, which was destroyed to make way for the park. African Americans played an important role over the years of the Hopewell Furnace. Enslaved persons in the 18th century are said to have dug Hopewell's original headrace which turned the water wheel supplying air to fire the furnace. After slavery became illegal, African Americans continued to work at Hopewell Furnace as paid employees.

Today, over years after the furnace was built, visitors can still see remnants of the east headrace near the ironmaster's mansion. James Dexter, a free African American, lived in a small house that fronted on North Fifth Street from about until He spent his early years in bondage and carried the slave name of "Oronoko. Learn more about life at the house by visiting the site, and tour the rest of the park to find out about John Dexter and other African Americans in Philadelphia.

Little written documentation exists about African American life at The Hermitage, home to President Andrew Jackson, but archeological research clues us in to their dwellings and work sites. In Jackson had enslaved 9 people, by over , and at the time of his death in approximately lived and worked on the property. They lived in "family units" in small 20 foot square cabins with one floor, one door, one window, a fireplace, and a small loft. The faunal remains of domesticated and wild animals, root cellars, architectural evidence, guns, knives, fishing tools, coins, and smaller items suggest what their lives were like.

Archeologists have discovered evidence of a forgotten 19th-century African American cemetery and made the protected site into a focal point for a park. Interpretive sculpture by Jerome Meadows and a gazebo add to the park's design. Their society also developed quickly, from the beginning to the end of the period, as Sophia Jundi explains. The period known as the Iron Age lasted in Britain for about years from c. The changes and technological innovations that occurred during this time were every bit as evolutionary as those that have occurred in the last years, from the 13th century to the present day.

By the end of the Iron Age, amongst other things, coinage had been introduced, wheel thrown pottery was being made, there was an increased interest in personal appearance, people had started to live in larger and more settled communities, and the mortuary rites of society had changed. Furthermore, because of climatic, geographical and topographical differences, someone living in Yorkshire or Ireland would have eaten different food, worn different clothing and lived in different housing conditions from someone living in southern Britain. Due to these ranges, and the varying evidence of the archaeology, the pattern of every day life in an Iron Age village has to be described in quite generalised terms.

Archaeology of Household Activities: Dwell...

Caesar commented that Britain was a land of small farms, and this has been proven by the archaeological evidence. Since Iron Age society was primarily agricultural, it is safe to presume that the daily routine would have revolved around the maintenance of the crops and livestock. Small farmsteads were tended by, and would have supported, isolated communities of family or extended family size, producing enough to live on and a little extra to exchange for commodities that the farmers were unable to provide for themselves.

Many of these small farmsteads, such as at Farley Mount in Hampshire, delimited with a circular bank and ditch enclosure, were surrounded by linear ditch systems that formed small rectangular fields, radiating out from the farm itself. It is obvious to presume that the daily routine would have revolved around the maintenance of the crops and livestock.

Environmental evidence - in the form of carbonised grains and pollen - has shown that new crops such as emmer wheat were introduced, in addition to the spelt wheat, barley, rye and oats already grown in these fields. Harvested crops were stored in either granaries that were raised from the ground on posts, or in bell-shaped pits m ft deep, dug into the chalk landscape. Some 4, of these storage pits have been found within the hillfort interior at Danebury in Hampshire, and if they were all used to store crops, this would have essentially made the site one large fortified granary.

Although faunal evidence shows that cattle and sheep would have been the most common farm animals, it is known that pigs were also kept. The animals would have aided the family, not only with heavy farm labour, in the case of the cattle, such as the ploughing of crop fields, but also as a valuable form of manure, wool or hide, and food products. Horses and dogs are also observed in the archaeological evidence from both faunal remains and artefacts.

Horses were used for pulling 2 or 4 wheeled vehicles carts, chariots , while dogs would have assisted in the herding of the livestock and hunting. The classical writer Strabo actually comments that Britain was famed for its hunting dogs, which were exported throughout the Roman Empire.

A very well preserved settlement has been discovered at the site of Chysauster in Cornwall. It was made up of individual houses of stone with garden plots, clustered along a street. In central southern Britain in about the sixth century, hillforts - large bank and ditch enclosures in prominent positions in the landscape - began to be built. The archaeological evidence shows that the enclosures were densely occupied, with circular houses and roads.

In Wessex, the typical building on a settlement would have been the large roundhouse. All of the domestic life would have occurred within this. The main frame of the roundhouse would have been made of upright timbers, which were interwoven with coppiced wood - usually hazel, oak, ash or pollarded willow - to make wattle walls. This was then covered with a daub made from clay, soil, straw and animal manure that would weatherproof the house.

The roof was constructed from large timbers and densely thatched. The main focus of the interior of the house was the central open-hearth fire. This was the heart of the house - an indispensable feature - to provide cooked food, warmth and light.

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Because of its importance within the domestic sphere, the fire would have been maintained 24 hours a day. Beside the fire may have stood a pair of firedogs, such as those found at Baldock in Herefordshire or suspended above it a bronze cauldron held up by a tripod and attached with an adjustable chain. The ordinary basic cooking pots would have been made by hand, from the local clay and came in varying rounded shapes, occasionally with simple incised decoration.


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As for eating, bread would have been an important part of any meal, and was made from wheat and barley ground down into flour using a quern-stone. The dough would have then been baked in a simple clay-domed oven, of which evidence has been found in Iron Age houses.

The barley and rye could also have been made into a kind of porridge, evidence for which has been found in the stomach contents in preserved Iron Age bodies that have been deposited in peat bogs in northern Europe. In addition to this, the Roman writer Pliny explains that grain was also fermented to make beer, and the surface foam that formed was scraped off and used in the bread-making process.

Other than cereal grains, few plant materials survived. However we can assume that Iron Age people supplemented their diet with edible berries, leaves, flowers, nuts and roots. The animals reared as livestock, pigs, cattle and sheep, would have been eaten as there is evidence of butchery on the bones.

At the hearth. Daily life, and domestic architecture in Early Iron Age farmsteads of Western Denmark

Milk and dairy products would have been available in addition to fish, birds, and the occasional wild animal. The evidence of beeswax in the bronze-casting techniques shows that honey would also have been available as a sweetener. The interior of the house was an ideal place for the drying and preservation of food. Smoke and heat from the constant fire would have smoked meat and fish, and would have dried herbs and other plants perfectly.

Salt was another means of preserving meat for the cold winter months, but this was a commodity that could not be made at a typical settlement and was therefore traded. In another part of the house would have been an upright weaving loom. The wool from the sheep was spun and woven to make clothes. At the end of the day, having tended to the livestock, there would presumably - hopefully - have been time to rest.